Background notes 

Background Notes

Ending Hunger Sustainably: Trends in official development assistance (ODA) spending for agriculture
This briefing note offers an overview of the trends in official financial disbursements to agriculture for the period 2002–2018.It offers an illustrative analysis of the types of exploration into public funding for development that can be conducted using a database maintained by OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC). (Read in English | Lire en français)

Ending Hunger Sustainably: Climate change adaptation and resilience
This background paper discusses how the Ceres2030 project addresses the challenge of climate change adaptation and resilience. It is not easy to do full justice to climate adaptation with the tools the project relies upon—namely, an economic cost model and syntheses of available published evidence on the effectiveness of agricultural interventions. (Read in English Lire en français

Ending Hunger Sustainably: Biodiversity 
This paper is about biological diversity and agriculture. Biodiversity, as with many environmental dimensions of food systems, is not yet a well-integrated dimension in interventions to end hunger and raise agricultural productivity. (Read in English | Lire en français)

Ending Hunger Sustainably: The role of social protection
In this brief, the Ceres2030 project team discusses the crucial role social protection plays in addressing poverty and vulnerability, as well as in mitigating the impact of COVID-19 and its associated economic consequences. (Read in English | Lire en français)

Ending Hunger Sustainably: The role of gender
This briefing note points to the challenges, highlights some interventions that have proven to be effective, and hopes it can contribute to making the case that gender must be counted and consciously included if women’s empowerment is to get the place it deserves in realizing the 2030 Agenda. (Read in English | Lire en français)

A Global Value Chain of Knowledge to End Hunger Sustainably
The SDG agenda is complex and integrated. It is an aspirational view of future societies that are able to secure a decent life for everyone on a thriving planet. Crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic test this vision. This is an introduction to the research tools that can be used by governments and donors to decide how much and where to spend scarce resources to solve the multiple and complex global challenges to sustainable development. (Read in English | Lire en français)